Archive for the ‘Switzerland’ category

The non-religious Swiss increases in size

April 20, 2011

25% of the Swiss are non-religious

A March 31st report by (31st March, 2011) carried news of a survey indicating that one in four Swiss citizens chose to describe themselves as ‘non-religious’. This was significantly up from the 1% who claimed to be non-religous in 1970 and the 11% who did so in the year 2000.

The Natural Science Foundation funded survey was carried out by Lausanne University professor Jörg Stolz and Münster University professor Judith Könemann, who suggested caution in interpreting the data. They pointed out that these unaffiliated individuals ‘might believe in God or be alternatively spiritual.’

The survey polled 1,229 people and a further 73 in-depth interviews produced a categorisation of people as one of four types: distanced (64%), institutional (17%), secular (10%), and alternative (9%). Institutionals represent the active churchgoers whilst the majority ‘distanced’ group attended occasional church services but did not consider religion to be very important in their lives. Most ‘alternatives’ were women and interested in’meditation, reincarnation and herbal remedies’.

Commenting on the findings, Markus Ries, a theologian at Lucerne University, predicted that in 25 years time there would be much more plurality regarding religious and non-religious practice, mirroring the increasing plurality in society at large.

In 2000, 161,075 people or 2.2% of the population belonged to so-called free churches (non-state recognised Christian denominations). For the moment Switzerland remains a Protestant country with 32% of the population claiming allegiance, a slim 1% ahead of the Roman Catholic population.

Further information about the changing face of religion in Switzerland and a number of useful links to the websites of various Swiss Churches is available by following this link.

God – do the maths!

March 28, 2011

The BBC reported last week on the mathematical modelling of census data from nine countries that predicts the death of religion in those countries by 2050 or thereabouts. I take seriously the work of social scientists and am impressed with the way that mathematical modelling can predict scenarios that might otherwise be difficult, even impossible, to construct. However, it’s important to keep a firm grip on the fact that mathematical modelling constructs models and scenarios based on non-mathematical assumptions. If the assumptions lack imagination, the model may fail to convince or satisfy, however sophisticated the modelling.

Released on the 14th January 2011, the work of three mathematicians from Northwestern University, Evanston IL, is stimulated by the growth in numbers of those who claim to be ‘non-affiliated’ when asked to indicate their religious affiliation. The research draws on data from six European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands,  and Switzerland.) as well as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand and its predictions are said to be valid for ‘modern secular societies’. Readers of their paper will immediately recognise that its mathematical modelling is probably beyond the ability of most to offer a credible critique. I suspect that even a good number of statisticians would struggle!

However, all models need a foundation and I’d simply encourage readers to consider whether they agree with the model’s assumptions. The first assumption is that religious groups become more attractive as the number of members increases. The second is that the attractiveness of a religious group depends upon the social, economic, political and security benefits of belonging to it, in addition to the shared spiritual vision of the group.

A question to ask is whether this model can, therefore, adequately account for religious groups whose appeal is grounded in the imaginative prospect of living without the benefits listed, who stress sacrifice, and who remain unconcerned with large numbers. This alternative way of life is likely to remain convincing for some. The researchers might dismiss this as being an unappealing prospect in a modern secular society but their dismissal would be rooted in human assumptions rather than mathematical certainty.

I am as confident as are the researchers standing behind their mathematical modelling, that well beyond the predicted demise of religion in 2050, it will continue to be a vital source of personal transformation and commitment. I dare not be complacent in the face of the significant challenges posed by secular alternatives, but I remain hopeful that in Europe, as elsewhere in the world, faith will continue to provoke imagination and form followers of Christ who ‘wager on a future that verifiable experience seems to belie.’ (David Bosch) Or, to put it another way, and to quote a well known mathematician, ‘Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.’ (Albert Einstein).